Nachiketa has been one of the most influential characters in Hinduism. Indian monk Swami Vivekananda said:
“If I get ten or twelve boys with the faith of Nachiketa, I can turn the thoughts and pursuits of this country in a new channel.”
Nachiket (नचिकेत) also known as Nachiketa (नचिकेता) was the son of the Sage Vajashrava (वाजश्रवा) is the child protagonist in an ancient Indian story about the nature of the soul and Brahman.
The primary story, dealing with the dialogue between Nachiketa and Yama, comes from the later Katha Upanishad, which is summarized below.
Vājashravasa, desiring a gift from the gods, started an offering to donate all his possession which is called as ‘ SARVA DAKSHINA’. But Nachiketa, his son, noticed that Vajashravasa was donating only the cows that were old, barren, blind, or lame;not such as might buy the worshiper a place in heaven. Nachiketa wanting the best for his father’s rite, asked: “I too am yours, to which god will you offer me?”. After being pestered thus, Vājashravasa answered in a fit of anger, “I give you to Death (Yama)”.
So Nachiketa went to Death’s home, but the god was out, and he waited three days without any food or water. When Yama returned, he was sorry to see that a Brahmin guest had been waiting so long without food and water. In Indian culture guests are believed to be equal to god and causing trouble to god is a great sin. To compensate his mistake, Yama told Nachiketa, “You have waited in my house for three days without hospitality, therefore ask three boons from me”. Nachiketa first asked for peace for his father and himself. Yama agreed. Next, Nachiketa wished to learn the sacred fire sacrifice, which also Yama elaborated. For his third boon, Nachiketa wanted to learn the mystery of what comes after death.
Yama was reluctant on this question. He said that this had been a mystery even to the gods. He asked Nachiketa to ask for some other boon, and offered many material gains.
But Nachiketa replied that material things will last only till tomorrow. He who has encountered Death personally, how can he desire wealth? No other boon would do. Yama was secretly pleased with this disciple, and elaborated on the nature of the true Self, which persists beyond death. The key of the realization is that this Self is inseparable from Brahman, the supreme spirit, the vital force in the universe. Yama’s explanation is a succinct explication of Hindu metaphysics, and focuses on the following points:
- The sound Om! is the syllabus of the supreme Brahman
- The Atma, whose symbol is Om is the same as the omnipresent Brahman. Smaller than the smallest and larger than the largest, the Soul is formless and all-pervading.
- The goal of the wise is to know this Atma.
- The Atma is like a rider; the horses are the senses, which he guides through the maze of desires.
- After death, it is the Atma that remains; the Atman is immortal.
- Mere reading of the scriptures or intellectual learning cannot realize Atma.
- One must discriminate the Atma from the body, which is the seat of desire.
- Inability to realize Brahman results in one being enmeshed in the cycle of rebirths. Understanding the Self leads to moksha
Thus having learned the wisdom of the Brahman from Yama, Nachiketa was freed from the cycle of births.
Ref : Wikipedia
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